"Compensating for Wind Variability Using Co-Located Natural Gas
Generation and Energy Storage"
Eric Hittinger, J.F. Whitacre, Jay Apt
Wind generation presents variability on every time scale, which must be
accommodated by the electric grid. Limited quantities of wind power can be
successfully integrated by the current generation and demand-side response
mix but, as deployment of variable resources increases, the resulting
variability becomes increasingly difficult and costly to mitigate. We
model a co-located power generation/energy storage block which contains
wind generation, a gas turbine, and fast-ramping energy storage.
Conceptually, the system is designed with the goal of producing
near-constant "baseload" power at a reasonable cost while still delivering
a significant and environmentally meaningful fraction of that power from
wind. The model is executed in 10 second time increments in order to
correctly reflect the operational limitations of the natural gas turbine.
A scenario analysis identifies system configurations that can generate
power with 30% of energy from wind, a variability of less than 0.5% of the
desired power level, and an average cost around $70/MWh. The systems
described have the most utility for isolated grids, such as Hawaii or
Ireland, but the study has implications for all electrical systems seeking
to integrate wind energy and informs potential incentive policies.
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