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CEIC-11-06

"Reserve Requirements for Primary Frequency Control Increase Sharply at High Levels of Wind Penetration"
Daniel Schnitzer and Jay Apt

Abstract:
Power system stability following a fault is protected by primary frequency control and also by the inertia of heavy generator rotors like those found in conventional power plants. Because non-hydro renewable resources provide the power system with much less inertia and frequency response, a large fault could induce damaging oscillations in a system with a high penetration of renewables, resulting in lost load.
Time-domain simulations on a fully dynamic modified IEEE 14-bus test system were conducted to measure the effect of a fault on metrics for system stability with varying quantities of wind power and wind interconnection locations. In response to model uncertainty, a probabilistic metric resembling loss-of-load-probability (LOLP) was ultimately chosen. Scenarios vary wind power penetration from 0% to 28% of total installed capacity.
Primary frequency control rapidly damps transients; we find that its reserve requirements increase sharply at high levels of wind penetration. Although these experiments should be run on a validated model of a major US interconnection to ascertain whether the observed trends are general, we find a sharp increase in LOLP as wind penetration nears 20% unless new primary frequency control resources (that can include energy storage) are added.

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