"Reserve Requirements for Primary Frequency Control Increase Sharply at
High Levels of Wind Penetration"
Daniel Schnitzer and Jay Apt
Power system stability following a fault is protected by primary frequency
control and also by the inertia of heavy generator rotors like those found in
conventional power plants. Because non-hydro renewable resources provide the
power system with much less inertia and frequency response, a large fault could
induce damaging oscillations in a system with a high penetration of renewables,
resulting in lost load.
Time-domain simulations on a fully dynamic modified IEEE 14-bus test system were
conducted to measure the effect of a fault on metrics for system stability with
varying quantities of wind power and wind interconnection locations. In response
to model uncertainty, a probabilistic metric resembling loss-of-load-probability
(LOLP) was ultimately chosen. Scenarios vary wind power penetration from 0% to
28% of total installed capacity.
Primary frequency control rapidly damps transients; we find that its reserve
requirements increase sharply at high levels of wind penetration. Although these
experiments should be run on a validated model of a major US interconnection to
ascertain whether the observed trends are general, we find a sharp increase in
LOLP as wind penetration nears 20% unless new primary frequency control
resources (that can include energy storage) are added.
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