"Optimizing Transmission from Distant Wind Farms"
Sompop Pattanariyankool and Lester B. Lave
We explore the optimal size of the transmission line from distant
wind farms, modeling the tradeoff between transmission cost and benefit
from delivered wind power. We also examine the benefit of connecting a
second wind farm, requiring additional transmission, in order to increase
output smoothness. Since a wind farm has a low capacity factor, the
transmission line would not be heavily loaded, on average; depending on
the time profile of generation, for wind farms with capacity factor of
29-34%, profit is maximized for a line that is about ¾ of the nameplate
capacity of the wind farm. Although wind generation is inexpensive at a
good site, transmitting wind power over 1,000 miles (about the distance
from Wyoming to Los Angeles) doubles the delivered cost of power. As the
price for power rises, the optimal capacity of transmission increases.
Connecting wind farms lowers delivered cost when the wind farms are close,
despite the high correlation of output over time. Imposing a penalty for
failing to deliver minimum contracted supply leads to connecting more
distant wind farms.
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